Differences in life outcomes, some have argued, are largely determined by the characteristics of the family, such as its composition and social and economic resources. One fundamental characteristic of the family that has significant and sustaining effects on children is its structure—that is, the number of parents and their relationships to the children in the household. A family structure can constrain the availability of economic and social resources such as parents’ ability to spend time with their child, be involved in educational activities, and expend monetary resources that can promote positive educational outcomes and well-being.